DPO modules backup 22/11/2021

We discuss two affiliations required  for a sharing platform, by registration and by transaction. In figure …, a registration is a way for a user to affiliate to the platform, and during the registration action the user submits personal data.

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A transaction is displayed in figure …. A user can create an offering by filling in an offering description. The created ‘offering on the platform’ is offered by the platform company together with the offering creator to a targeted customer community. A platform consumer initiates the transaction and becoming a customer, after which the transaction can be accepted by the offering creator, becoming the provider. The customer and provider belong to a different side of users, and  after the transaction is initiated, a delivery that at least partly fulfils the transaction can be received by the platform customer.

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There are two fundamental pools of offering allocation models. A model of decentralized list-based offerings a certain user can choose from, and a model of centralized offerings automatically matched to a certain user by the software. But in reality, most digital platforms are on a continuum between both models. A sharing platform is decentralized and offers a simple list-based solution as the basic matching mechanism. Platform customers can choose themselves with which other users to interact by performing a search through the content. Platform customers can specify the demanded characteristics of the requested resource (e.g., rental interval). After, the platform software queries its offer database and presents the consumer an individual list of suited matches to choose from. This way, a decentralized model exercises little control for exchanges beyond matchmaking but instead leverages the resources and innovation of its population of users (Sutherland and Jarrahi, 2018).

In figure … a decentralized offering is called a listing. A targeted decentralized customer can perform a search through the listing descriptions. This listing search can result in the creation of a transaction by that customer.

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A P2P platform does not necessarily offer transactions, but intermediates in the interaction between its users as equal participants, also called prosumers alternating in their role as producer and consumer co-creating the value proposition (Ritter and Schanz, 2019). Peer users can be persons, but also micro-entrepreneurs (Bardhi and Eckhardt, 2012).  

In figure [A3] …, it is displayed that peer users can easily alternate as producer and consumer and thus perform the same actions. It is also required that peer users can automatically affiliate to the platform

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A transactional market has at least two sides, one creating the offering and another consuming the offering. It is possible that the kind of users allowed to operate at each side of the market is constrained by the platform company. A sharing platform as defined by (Frenken and Schor, 2017) needs to be C2C[A4] , and therefore only allows persons on all sides.

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An offer can involve a product and/or a service (Täuscher and Laudien, 2018), however, the difference of products and services is hard to make (Jacob and Ulaga, 2008). There is a continuum scale of product-oriented and result-oriented offerings (Ritter and Schanz, 2019) where product-oriented offerings are geared towards sales of products, while for result-oriented offerings the provider is selling a result or competence, offering a mix of services. An offering can be anywhere on this continuum, and the relevance of the product as a core component decreases as the offering gets closer to the result-oriented side. In the middle of this continuum are the user-oriented offerings consisting of product leasing, renting, sharing and pooling (Tukker, 2004).

In figure … if the desired delivery involves a good, it is a product-oriented offering. If the desired delivery involves a service of a deliverer, it’s a result-oriented offering. If the desired delivery involves both, the offering is user-oriented.

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Figure 4: …

The under-utilization of products comes into existence when there is excess capacity, giving the offering creator an opportunity to lend out or rent out his own goods to potential customers. Excess capacity of a product is present when the owner does not consume the product all the time. A majority of consumer goods can be understood as having excess capacity, including houses, cars, boats, houses, clothing, books, toys, appliances, tools, furniture, computers and others (Frenken and Schor, 2017). Simply said, a physical product is under-utilized when it is also regularly used by the provider.

In figure … the product involved in the delivery is also personally used by the provider .

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